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Species listing:  
Garcinia [genus]  
Synonyms: Rheedia [genus] L.,
Verticillaria [genus] Ruiz & Pav.

G. atroviridis  

G. bancana  

G. barteri  

G. brasiliensis  
Synonyms: Rheedia brasiliensis
(Mart.) Planch. & Triana

G. brevirostris  

G. cochinchinensis  

G. cornea  

G. costata  

G. cowa  

G. dives  

G. dulcis  

G. echinocarpa  

G. elliotii  

G. floribunda  
Synonyms: Rheedia floribunda
(Miq.) Planch. & Triana

G. forbesii  

G. gaudichaudii  

G. globulosa  

G. gnetoides  

G. griffithii  

G. gummi-gutta  
Synonyms: Garcinia cambogia Desr.

G. hanburyi  
Synonyms: Garcinia morella
(Gaetn.) Desr.

G. hombroniana  

G. hullensis  

G. humilis  
Synonyms: Rheedia lateriflora L.

G. indica  

G. intermedia  
Synonyms: Rheedia edulis
(Seem.)Triana & Planch., Rheedia
intermedia Pittier

G. kajewskii  

G. klainea  

G. kola  

G. lancaeafolia  

G. lateriflora  

G. ledermanii  

G. livingstonei  

G. macrophylla  
Synonyms: Garcinia griffithii T.

G. macrophylla  
Synonyms: Rheedia macrophylla
(Mart.) Planch. & Tr., Rheedia
gardneriana Planch. & Tr.

G. madruno  
Synonyms: Rheedia madruno Planch.
& Triana

G. maingayi  

G. malaccensis  

G. mangostana  

G. mannii  

G. merguensis  

G. microstigma  

G. morella  

G. myrtifolia  

G. nigrolineata  

G. oblongifolia  

G. ovalifolia  

G. parvifolia  

G. pedunculata  

G. picrorhiza  

G. pictorum  

G. planchoni  

G. polyantha  

G. prainiana  

G. pseudoguttifera  

G. rostrata  

G. sessilis  

G. sopsopia  
Synonyms: Garcinia paniculata

G. sp.  

G. tonkinensis  

G. vidalii  

G. xanthochymus  
Synonyms: Garcinia pictoria Roxb.

G. [balsamifera]  
Synonyms: Verticillaria
balsamifera .

G. [benthamiana]  
Synonyms: Rheedia benthamiana .

G. [longifolia]  
Synonyms: Rheedia longifolia .

G. [spruceana]  
Synonyms: Rheedia spruceana .



Garcinia [genus] L. CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Rheedia [genus] L., Verticillaria [genus] Ruiz & Pav.

Common names: Gamboge (Hortus) Kandis, Gelugur (Burkill)

Old World tropics; 200 spp. Polygamous trees or shrubs. Lvs. opp., simple, usually thick. Fls. axillary or terminal, sepals & petals 4 or 5, stamens 8 to many, ovary 2-12-celled. Fruit a leathery indehiscent berry, seeds surrounded by pulpy often edible aril. The yellow gum resin of some Asiatic spp., obtained from incisions made in the bark, yields commercial gamboge, used as a artist's pigment and medicinally as a cathartic. Included in Guttiferae (Hortus Third 1976:494) Rheedia: Trop. Am., Madagascar; 30 spp. Polygamodieocious trees with yellow sap. Lvs. lanceolate or elliptic, leathery, petioles with a margined pit on upper side at base. Fls. small, yellowish green, sol. or the male fls. in axillary clusters, sepals 2, petals 4, stamens many in male fls., few and in a single series around the disc in bisex. fls. Fruit a berry with a leathery covering, 1-celled, seeds 1-5, enclosed in an edible, aril-like pulp. In Guttiferae (Hortus Third 1976:947) Trop. Asia, Polynesia, S Africa. Evergreen trees & shrubs. Fls. sol. or few. In Guttiferae (Griffiths 1994:492) Tropics esp. Asia, S Africa; 400 spp. Stamens free, united in bundles or in a common mass. Berry with arillate seed. Some have useful timber. In Guttiferae (Willis 1973:477) Rheedia: Cent. & trop. S Am., W Indies, Madagascar; 45 spp. (Willis 1973:989) Esp. Asia, S Africa [but Rheedia, now Garcinia, is in trop. Am.]. Usually slow-growing. Fls. usually nocturnal, highly scented. Berries with fleshy endocarp around seeds, often edible; some parthenocarpic. Resins given pigments incl. gamboge; some waxes and timbers. Some wild spp. and also G. mangostana in cult. are apomictic, embryos without fertilization. In Guttiferae (Mabberley 1998:293) Old World tropics. Trees or shrubs. Wood usually hard, but the best timber spp. are not Malayan. Timber color yellow to reddish brown, usually good texture, but liable to split; the better spp. are fairly durable. Many spp. have edible fruit. Sometimes as in the mangosteen, the pulp is encased in a hardened outer shell. More usually as in the Kandis, fruits have a thin skin, like a plum but with more than one seed. Acid fruits of some spp. serve as a subst. for tamarind [Tamarindus, Leguminosae] in curries; dried or salted to preserve them. Also used to fix dyes in the arts. Kandis is the Malay name for many spp. with edible acid fruits, thin skin. Gelugur for large edible fluted fruits. Commercial gamboge is the resin of G. hanburyi and G. morella. Many other spp. have resin of this color, but they will not produce an emulsion in water. They may serve in varnishes as well as gamboge, but cannot be used for water colors. Sometimes applied on wounds. Tannin present in many spp. Acid fruits of several spp. used in external medicine. A decoction of one with salt, is swallowed for fever, it induces perspiration. Seeds contain edible oil (e). In Guttiferae (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1063) Several spp. yield gamboge, a resin-gum mixture. Formerly used as a cathartic. Now important as a water-paint pigment and in spirit varnishes for metal. In Guttiferae (Schery 1972:245) Gamboge is so called from Cambodia or Camboja, whence it was first brought (Brewer 1978) The genus Garcinia is named after Laurence Garcin who lived and collected and wrote in India in the eighteenth century (Sahni 1998:26) Linnaeus named the genus for Laurent Garcin, born at Grenoble, France in 1683. Settled in Switzerland at the time of the Edict of Nantes. His father considered him stupid, but he became a distinguished poet & preacher. As a physician in the Dutch army, he travelled extensively in the E Indies, collecting plants as a hobby. Fairchild was seeking all the Garcinias he could find, in Peradiniya, Ceylon; Botanic Gardens, Singapore; Buitenzorg, Java. Unfortunately all were large & slow-growing, not promising for stocks for mangosteen. Perhaps they will be useful for any future breeding of the genus. All spp. found at Buitenzorg were extremely sour (Fairchild 1943) Rheedia: Probably all spp. have edible fruit. Heartwood dull grayish to pinkish brown, hard, mod. heavy, tough, strong; coarse texture with irreg. grain. Not difficult to work, but does not finish smoothly, durability fair. Bark said to be rich in tannin. Timber used locally for tool handles, general construction & carpentry, fence posts, RR ties. In Guttiferae (Flora of Guatemala 1961:57) Rheedia: In Clusiaceae (Standley 1923:827) In Clusiaceae (Parham 1972) In Clusiaceae (Jain and Dam 1979) In Clusiaceae (Bodner and Gereau 1988) In Clusiaceae (Blicher-Mathiesen 1994)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia atroviridis


Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anderson CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Kayu gelugur (Burkill) Assam geloegoer (Fairchild)

S Malaya, Assam; forests. Tree of fair size, sometimes semi-cult. in villages. Fruits brilliant yellow-orange, depressed-globose, fluted. Acid juicy fruit-wall, much used as a seasoning or sour relish called asam, both fresh and sun-dried. If stewed with plenty of sugar it is quite pleasant to eat; more usually in curries. Fruit in a lotion rubbed on the abdomen of a woman after confinement; purpose not clear. Leaf juice is given as a protective medicine at the same time. Leaf & root decoction dropped in the ear for earache. Dyers of Pattani, Kelantan & Pekan use the dried fruit as a fixative (e) with alum for a number of dyes (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1064) In Sumatra used like the Goraka of Ceylon in curries. Its rind splits naturally into segms. on ripening, and these when dried in the sun turn black. Keep for weeks, retaining their incredible sourness to the end (Fairchild 1943) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia bancana


Garcinia bancana Miq. CLUSIACEAE

Sumatra, S Malaya, Banca. Tree of considerable size. Prefers tidal mud. Timber valuable, much sought in Sumatra. Cantley 1883 said supplies in Singapore were nearly gone. Fruit eaten in S Sumatra (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1065) V. handsome ornamental tree. Edible fruits are golden yellow like those of G. xanthochymus, and like it extremely sour; as sour, let us say, as those Japanese plums [Prunus, Rosaceae] which people grow in their gardens in New England and are so enthusiastic about (Fairchild 1943) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia barteri


Garcinia barteri Oliv. CLUSIACEAE

Togo. Fruit yellow-red, globose, 2-seeded. Eaten in times of scarcity (Dalziel 1948:90) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia brasiliensis


Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Rheedia brasiliensis (Mart.) Planch. & Triana

Common names: Bacupari (Schery)

Rheedia b.: S Brazil. Wild trees yield a yellowish subacid fruit with a leathery rind. Used chiefly to make doce, a dessert jam (Schery 1972:564) Fruit sold in the markets (Mabberley 1998:293) Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia brevirostris


Garcinia brevirostris Scheff. CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Tentulang merah, Pokok sampang (Burkill)

Andaman Is. & Tenasserim to the Philippines; W side of Malaya. Tree of fair size. Timber hard, durable, used in house-building. Yellow color. ‘Tentulang’ compares the wood to bone; ‘pokok sampang’ means varnish tree (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1065) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia cochinchinensis


Garcinia cochinchinensis Choisy CLUSIACEAE

China. Fruit about the size of a plum, reddish when ripe, juicy acid pulp. Lvs. used in Amboina as a condiment for fish (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:285) Cochin China. Planted in the Peradiniya Gardens, Ceylon (Fairchild 1943) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia cornea


Garcinia cornea L. CLUSIACEAE

India to Malaysia. Tree to 7 m. Lvs. oblong to 15 cm long. Male fls. in terminal clusters, female fls. sol., all pale green to 2 cm across. Fruit 8 cm diam., bright red, pericarp spongy, aril white, sour (Griffiths 1994:492) E Bengal to Malaysia. Small fruits, acid but good eating (Fairchild 1943) E Indies. Fruit resembles that of mangosteen, but is somewhat larger (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:285) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia costata


Garcinia costata Hemsl. CLUSIACEAE

NW Perak in Malaya. Tall tree. Fruit like that of G. atroviridis. Sakai eat it (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1065) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia cowa


Garcinia cowa Roxb. ex DC CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Cowa, Cowa-Mangosteen (Sturtevant)

Bengal, Assam, Siam, perhaps as far as Malaya. Tree. Burmese eat lvs. as a vegetable; this & G. microstigma are the only ones with edible lvs. Andaman Is., eat only v. young lvs. Fruit can be eaten, but is unpleasantly sticky. Timber hard but not first class. Bark contains a yellow resin, insol. in water, used for varnishes but not water-paints (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1066) Endocarp & pericarp good flavor (Mabberley 1998:293) E Indies. Fruit edible but not palatable. Fruit ribbed, russet-apricot-colored, the size of an orange, a little too acid to be delicious. Makes a remarkably fine preserve. Fruit is eaten in Burma (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:285) Frequent in evergreen forests of NE India at lower elevations. Khasi and Garo sun-dry the fruit, powder it, use it for dysentery (Rao 1981:7) Fruit eaten. In the hills of NE India, the acid fruit is applied as a poultice for obstinate headaches (Jain and Dam 1979:54) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia dives


Garcinia dives Pierre CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. Bontoc of Luzon, Philippines, eat the fruit, use the wood for fuel. A wild plant, not protected (Bodner and Gereau 1988) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia dulcis


Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Mundu (Burkill)

Molucca Is. Tree to 20 ft. Lvs. oblong, 6" long, tapering apically to a slender point, entire, pale beneath. Fls. cream-colored, globular. Fruit yellow, smooth, about the size of an apple, seeds surrounded by yellow palatable aril. The fruit is edible raw or cooked; it makes an excellent jam (Hortus Third 1976:494) Java to Philippines; cult. throughout Malaysia. Tree of med. size. Fruits 2.5" diam., yellow, rather sour, contain citric acid. Eaten to some extent raw & cooked, make excellent jam. Seed used in external medicine. In Java pounded with vinegar or salt, applied to swellings. Bark used as a dye, with indigo gives a brown color. In Java to dye mats: green color with Curcuma [Zingiberaceae] & Pandanus [Pandanaceae]. Timber yellow, not durable (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1066) Med. sized tree with prolific crops of pale orange plum-like fruits, 1" diam. Eaten fresh or made into jam. Not a top-quality fruit (Kennard and Winters 1960) Moluccas. Berry the size of an apple, roundish oval, bright yellow when ripe. Seeds are enveloped in an edible pulp, darker color than the skin, pleasant taste (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:285) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia echinocarpa


Garcinia echinocarpa Thwaites CLUSIACEAE

Ceylon. Seed oil used for burning (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1064) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia elliotii


Garcinia elliotii Engl. CLUSIACEAE

S. Leone. Shrub with angled branchlets when young. Fruit 2-seeded, 1" long, reddish-yellow. Seeds thin-shelled, used for indigestion (Dalziel 1948:90) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia floribunda


Garcinia floribunda Miq. CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Rheedia floribunda (Miq.) Planch. & Triana

Range not given. In Brazil 1955, fruits yellow, pulp edible (von Reis and Lipp 1982:188). Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia forbesii


Garcinia forbesii King CLUSIACEAE

Sumatra, Malaya; v. scattered. Small tree. Brown wood is heavy but splits readily (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1066) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia gaudichaudii


Garcinia gaudichaudii Planch. & Triana CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Kandis (Burkill)

Cochin China, N Malaya. Small tree. Juice of roots rubbed in cuts to heal them. Little use made of the resin (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1066) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia globulosa


Garcinia globulosa Ridl. CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Kandis (Burkill)

S Malaya, common. Fairly tall tree. Fruits round, 0.5" across. Pleasant to eat fresh. When stewed the skins become tough (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1066) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia gnetoides


Garcinia gnetoides Hutch. & J.M. Dalz. CLUSIACEAE

Iv. Coast, W Gold Coast; forests. Small tree with acutely 4-angled branches crowded at the top. Exudes a yellow resin. A decoction of lvs. used as a purgative (Dalziel 1948:90) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia griffithii


Garcinia griffithii T. Anders. CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Kandis gajah (Burkill)

S Malaya. Moderate sized tree. Apple-like fruit is v. acid, sometimes cooked & eaten. Name means elephant or big kandis (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1067) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia gummi-gutta


Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) N Robson CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Garcinia cambogia Desr.

Common names: Gamboge (Burkill) Goraka (Fairchild)

Indonesia. Tree to 14 m. Lvs. elliptic to lanceolate, to 13 cm. Male fls. 3-4, axillary, yellow, female fls. larger, in axils of terminal leaf pair. Fruit globose, grooved, on stalks 2.5 cm long, orange or yellow, to 8 cm diam., aril red or white (Griffiths 1994:492) G. cambogia: Siam, Indochina, Ceylon. When the trunk is cut a bright yellow juice flows, collected and dried to a solid mass. In commerce the finest quality is called pipe gamboge. A gum resin, known as a pigment in painting for centuries. Used as a purgative (e) in China as far back as records go. Contains 15-20% gum, 70-80% of a yellow resin, gambogic acid. Purgative in doses of 2-5 grains, v. active hydragogue cathartic, many watery stools with much griping. The compound cathartic pill of the US Pharmacopoeia has 1/4 grain, plus other drugs to diminish the pain. Overdoses cause violent poisoning, with intense prostration (Encyclopedia Americana. 1954:Gamboge) G. cambogia: India. Endocarp is pink, deeply lobed. Pericarp dried for fish curry (Mabberley 1998:293) G. cambogia: In India used as a subst. for tamarind [Tamarindus, Leguminosae] in curries (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1063) G. cambogia: E Indies. Fruit 2" diam., thin smooth yellowish rind, yellow succulent sweet pulp. The fruit is exceedingly sharp but pleasantly acid, and the aril or pulp is by far the most palatable part. Eaten as an appetizer at meals (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:285) G. cambogia: Dull black dried segms. in markets everywhere in Ceylon, sour as hydrochloric acid. Used one piece at a time to give a curry a pleasant acid taste. One of the flavors that give Sinhalese curry its character (Fairchild 1943) Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia hanburyi


Garcinia hanburyi Hook.f. CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Garcinia morella (Gaetn.) Desr.

Common names: Gamboge, Rong (Burkill) Cambogia, Guttagemou, Tang-hwang, Shié-hwang (Britannica) Cochin goraka (Sturtevant) Kana-goraka (Fairchild)

Siam. Formerly incl. in G. morella, which is now restricted to India W Coast. Wild in the Siamese Circle of Chantaburi, not known wild elsewhere, but the hinterland is botanically unexplored. This sp. is the source of Siamese and Cambodian gamboge; gamboge also exported from Cambodia and lower Cochin-China. A Chinese traveler 1295-97 classified gamboge as a yellow subst. used medicinally. Today the Chinese use it only as coloring matter. 1864, d'Almeida had 28 trees 35-50 ft. high, which were tapped for gamboge from time to time; Hanbury described the sp. from these trees. Resin called rong in Siam, marketed chiefly to Singapore. A Eu. physician 1614 recommended the resin as a gentle purge. It certainly purges; a larger dose causes vomiting, and 4 grams causes fatal gastroenteritis. Parkinson 1640 called it catharticum. Now no longer used. Active resin called gambogic acid; rel. to mangostin in mangosteen rinds [G. mangostana], and to a subst. found in Mesua ferrea [Clusiaceae]. With the resin is 15-25% gum, analogous to that of the Acacias [Leguminosae]. In the East used only as a pigment. Comes to market in various shapes. Spiral tapping incisions, run into molds and allowed to set, or when half set pressed into cakes. Makes the golden yellow ink of Siam, used for writing on locally made books of black paper. A little used in Eu. in water-color painting. More used for a golden spirit-varnish. Also for gold-lacquer for coating metals, known as pear-ground lacquer, used with gold-dust. Gamboge paint is an emulsion in water (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1067) G. morella: This & other spp. yield gamboge, a resin obtained by cutting into the stem (Willis 1973:477) G. morella: Tree to 15 m. Lvs. oblong to lanceolate, to 10 cm. Fls. axillary, yellow, female clustered or sol. Fruit cherry-shaped, 2 cm diam., sepals persistent (Griffiths 1994:492) Zhou Daguan, Chinese Commercial Attaché late 13th cent., lists the exports from Angkor [Cambodia] to China. One was gamboge (Coe 2003:149) G. morella: Name is Sinhalese. Fruit the size of a morello cherry [Prunus, Rosaceae], scarcely edible. The sticky gamboge-like sap of the tree is a favorite medicine for wounds in Ceylon (Fairchild 1943) G. morella var.: Camboja, parts of Siam, S Cochin-China. Dioecious tree with leathery laurel-like lvs., small yellow fls. Fruit usually square shape, 4 seeds. The drug cambogia is a gum-resin from this tree. Gamboge in India also from G. morella, G. pictoria [now G. xanthochymus] and G. travancorica. Juice is contained chiefly in numerous ducts in the middle layer of the bark. Obtained by tapping, with bamboo joints to receive it as it exudes. When hardened it constitutes gamboge. In comm. found in cylindrical pieces known as pipe or roll gamboge. Also in cakes or amorphous masses, usually inferior quality. Dirty orange externally, hard, brittle. Breaks with a conchoidal fracture, reddish-yellow and glistening. Affords a brilliant yellow powder. No odor; taste at first slight, later acrid. Forms an emulsion in water. 20-25% of a gum sol. in water, 70-75% of a resin, gambogic acid, sol. in alcohol or ether. Johnston reports the formula C20 H23 O4. Contains 5% moisture. Commonest adulterants are rice-flour and pulverized bark. Exported chiefly from Bangkok in Siam and Saigon in Cochin China; some also from Kâmpot in Camboja. Used as a pigment and as a coloring matter for varnishes. Apparently first brought into Eu. by merchants from the East, late 16th cent. Bontius writing in 1658 mentions it as guttagemou, a word derived by Rost from the Malay gutâh, gum and the Javanese jamu, medicinal. The Chinese say gamboge is vomited up by serpents, or the product of a sp. of rattan analogous to the tabasheer of bamboo; names incl. tang-nwang, or shié-hwang, ‘serpent bezoar’. Pharmacologically a powerful hydragogue purgative, less drastic only than elaterium [Ecballium, Cucurbitaceae] and croton oil [Croton, Euphorbiaceae]. Like aloes [Aloe, Liliaceae] it appears to exert its chief influence on the lower bowel. In combination with compound colocynth [Citrullus, Cucurbitaceae] pill it has been recommended by Dr. Symonds as one of the most efficient purgatives in torpor of the colon. Gambogic acid is less cathartic than the same weight of gamboge. Its action depends on the presence of bile in the intestine. In cerebral affections, as apoplexy, when great debility is not present, gamboge is a valuable counter-irritant purgative. Sometimes used as an anthelmintic, but lacks any specific influences on enterozoa. Has been found highly serviceable in dropsy. Abeille 1883 administered it in divided doses of 6 grains per day, incr. by 2 grains daily; with the relief of the dropsy the patient's tolerance of such large doses ceased. Apt to cause vomiting & griping, so usually administered with milder remedies. An ingredient of the pitula cambogiae compositae of pharmacy. In overdoses an acrid poison, causing violent emesis and catharsis. Also abdominal pain, coldness in the extremities and ulceration of the intestines, resulting in death (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893:Gamboge) G. morella: Gamboge was exported from Cambodia acc. to Chinese records of 1295-97, still an imp. export today. Name from the country Camboja, and exported chiefly from that country, but the tree does not seem to have been seen there by any botanist. Habitat in the NW of the old Cambojan territory about Korat, now subject to Siam (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893:Cambodia) Most important pigments are of mineral origin. One from plants is gamboge, used principally as a water-color (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893:Pigments) G. morella: Siam, Cambodia, common small tree. Fruit a pulpy drupe 2" diam., yellow color, esteemed as a dessert fruit. Cult. in Public Gardens of Jamaica, called cochin goraka [may ref. to a different sp.; no mention of fruit of this sp. in Burkill, etc.] (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:286) Valid species; synonym listed as another species [but see Burkill, above] (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia hombroniana


Garcinia hombroniana Pierre CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Manggis hutan (Burkill)

Nicobar Is., coasts of Malaya. Tree much like the mangosteen; name means jungle mangosteen. Possibly does not flower at the same time as the mangosteen. Between the red fruit-shell and the seeds is a sour edible pulp with the flavor of peaches. This is eaten wherever the tree grows. Root decoction as a protective medicine after childbirth. Root & lvs. for itch (e) in Malaya. Timber prob. for house-building, oars (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1068) Ancestor of G. mangostana (Mabberley 1998:293) Tried the fruits, prob. of this sp., thoroughly on the yacht's company, but there was a taste to which none of us became accustomed. I was reluctantly obliged to relegate this sp. to a possible stock on which to graft the mangosteen. Should it turn out to be valuable for this, perhaps Mr. Whitehouse, who sat patiently all one afternoon cleaning the seeds, may forgive me (Fairchild 1943) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia hullensis


Garcinia hullensis . CLUSIACEAE

Sudan to Zambia, occasional. Small evergreen tree of forest, woodland. To 60 ft. high, trunk 2 ft. diam. Bark exudes droplets of pale yellow gum when cut. Small opp. simple lvs., broad-ovate, thin, leathery, glossy. Pale yellow fl.-clusters in axils or stem below the lvs.; July-Sept. Fruits Dec.-Feb., juicy, fleshy, subglobose, orange, 1 seed. Timber fairly heavy, white to light brown sapwood & heartwood; texture coarse, grain wavy, hard to saw but planes, turns and polishes well. Could prob. be used for furniture, etc. Used as building poles. Lvs., bark, roots used to make traditional medicines (Fanshawe 1968) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia humilis


Garcinia humilis (Vahl) Adams CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Rheedia lateriflora L.

Common names: Wild Mammee (Sturtevant)

Jamaica to Trinidad, to E Bolivia & Brazil; 150 to 950 m. Shrub or tree to 10 m, branches in tiered whorls. Lvs. evergreen, opp., elliptic to 28 cm long or more, 16 cm wide, blunt at apex, leathery. Fls. cream-yellow or white to 2.5 cm wide, in axillary or lateral clusters. Fruit yellow, ellipsoid, to 8 cm long, agreeable acid flesh, 1-3 seeds to 2.5 cm long. Shady woodlands, not common. Fr. W Indies, bark decoction to treat parasitic skin diseases. Ripe fruit is eaten. In Trinidad, young trees have been cut, branches trimmed so the stem & shortened limbs form a natural hat-stand (Morton 1981:Vol. 1 page 567) Bloom year-round (Griffiths 1994:492) Rheedia l.: Fruit has a pleasant acid taste (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:490) Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia indica


Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Kokam butter (Burkill) Kokum (Blicher-M.) Cokum butter (Britannica) Cocum, Conca, Brindas (Sturtevant) Cocum butter, Cocum oil (Webster)

India, endemic in the trop. rain forests of the Western Ghats, SW India; often planted. Tree, small, slender, graceful, usually buttressed, drooping branches. Lvs. red when young, to 10 cm long, thick-membranous, lanceolate, nearly sessile. Fls. small, male in terminal cymes, 3-7 fls., pedicels to 0.5 cm long, stamens numerous, short filaments crowded on a central hemispherical receptacle. Hermaphrodite fls. sol., stamens 10-18 in 4 bundles alt. with petals, ovary 5-7-celled. Fruit globose, to 3.8 cm diam., purple, resembles a plum, 5-8 large seeds embedded in red acid pulp. Blooms Nov.-Feb., fruits April-May. The seeds yield a valuable edible fat (e), Kokam butter; also medicinal. Kokam is the Hindi name. The acid pulp is used in cosmetics, textiles, soap, other industries. Fruit peel used in cooking. Goa is the center of kokam butter trade (Sahni 1998:26) Pericarp used to flavor curries (Mabberley 1998:293) Trees grow on the W side of the Western Ghats, in Maharashtra, Goa & Karnataka States. Altitude to 800 m. Med. sized male & female trees. Unlike shea [Butyrospermum, Sapotaceae] and Borneo illipe [Shorea, Dipterocarpaceae], the ann. seed prod. is regular. Produce 0.84 to 4.51 kg dry weight per year. Total kokum fat extraction was ca. 200 tons/ year, reported 1987. In the late 1950s, fractionated shea oil was mixed with palm oil, added to cocoa butter [Theobroma, Sterculiaceae] in any ratio, used to manuf. chocolate. Kokum oil is much richer in stearic-oleic acids, 73%, than either Butyrospermum, 25%, or Shorea, 50% (Blicher-Mathiesen 1994) Bengal. Seeds are the source of kokam butter, used in food & medicine. Twice as much stearin as in oil from G. morella, and half as much olein. Fat goes rancid (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1063) The seeds yield 10% of a solid white or greenish-yellow fat, pleasant smelling, rather friable. Contains stearin & olein, also glycerides of myristic acid and various free fatty acids. Used in India principally to adulterate ghee, also medicinal. It is described as being an excellent subst. for spermateci [from whales], and to be potentially useful to make soap (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893:Oil: Vegetable fats) E Indies. Large tree of the W India coast [prob. G. morella], native name conca. Fruit the size of a small apple, with an acid purple pulp. Garcia d'Orta 1563: it has a pleasant though sour taste, used to make a vinegar. The oil from the seeds has been used to adulterate butter. About Bombay called kokum, fruit is eaten and oil obtained from the seeds. Called brindas by Portuguese at Goa, cocom oil used to adulterate ghee or butter (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:285) E Indies. Cocum is a thick oil extracted from this tree; name prob. from the native name (Webster’s 1958:Cocum) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia intermedia


Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Rheedia edulis (Seem.)Triana & Planch., Rheedia intermedia Pittier

Common names: Limoncillo (von Reis) Waika Plum (Sanderson)

Rheedia e.: S Mexico, Belize, Guatemala to Panama. Moist forest to 1,200 m, prob. planted at higher elevations. Glabrous tree, sometimes to 30 m, branchlets green, sap yellowish. Lvs. short-petiolate, coriaceous, often deep red when young, elliptic, on adult branches to 10 cm long, on sterile branches much larger, obtuse, lateral nerves prominent. Pedicels in dense fascicles at leafless nodes, slender, to 1.3 cm, sepals thin to 4 mm long, petals 4, white, orbicular to 7 mm long, stamens 25-30 in the staminate fls., 10-12 in perfect fls. Fruit oval, yellow, ca. 2 cm long, smooth. Common tree on the Pacific plains & foothills (Flora of Guatemala 1961:55) R. intermedia: Belize, Guatemala to Nicaragua. Wet mixed forest to 500 m (Flora of Guatemala 1961:57) Rheedia e.: Oax., Cent Am. Tree to 15 m. Peduncles axillary, usually fasciculate, 1-fld., to 2 cm long; sepals 2, petals 4, 6 mm long, stamens 10-12. Fruit olive-like, 2.5 cm long, 1-2 seeds, scant flesh. Fruit is sweet, edible (Standley 1923:827) Rheedia e.: In Los Tuxtlas Rain Forest Reserve in Ver., the edible fruits are sold locally, Aug.-Nov. Wood is good, but trunks are too small to cut boards (Ibarra-Manríquez, Ricker, Angeles, et al. 1997) Rheedia e.: Yellow fruit the size of a lemon [?], agreeable taste. Wood used in rural construction because it is immune to wood-borers (Santamaría 1978:Jorco) Rheedia e.: Panama. The edible fruit is the size of a hazelnut (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:490) Rheedia e.: Middle canopy of jungle (Sanderson 1965) Rheedia e.: In Panama 1927, the greenish yellow gum used for wounds, cuts, etc. (von Reis and Lipp 1982:187). Valid species & synonyms (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia kajewskii


Garcinia kajewskii . CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. In Queensland, Australia, fruit exceptionally acid (von Reis and Lipp 1982:187). Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia klainea


Garcinia klainea Pierre CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. Bark is added to palm wine to incr. the intoxicating effect (e) (Dalziel 1948:91) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia kola


Garcinia kola Heckel CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Bitter Kola, False Kola, Male Kola, Orogbo Kola (Dalziel)

S. Leone, Liberia, Gold Coast, Nigeria, Cameroons. Commonly in moist conditions to 3,000 ft. Often assoc. with Cola nitida or C. acuminata [Sterculiaceae]. Planted near villages in Lower Dahomey & Lagos Colony. Seeds marketed from Senegal to S Nigeria & parts of the interior. They do not separate into cotyledons; see Tylostemon [now Beilschmiedia, Lauraceae]. Used more as an adjuvant for kola than as a substitute. A bitter, astringent, resinous taste, followed by slight sweetness. They increase the user's enjoyment of kola, and allow the consumption of larger quantities without indisposition. Similarly enhance the flavor of native liquor. Eaten raw, not in prepared food. Residue after chewing is white. Medicinally, seeds prevent or relieve colic, v. good for colds in the head or chest, relieve cough, improve the singing voice (e). Pounded & mixed with other drugs, taken for headaches, dysentery. Recorded as an antidote to the poison of Strophanthus gratus [Apocynacae]. Active principle is prob. in the resin, as no caffeine or other alkaloid was found on analysis. Fruit (e) itself is edible. Root is a bitter chewstick, sold in small bundles in native markets, esp. in the forest region. S. Leone, bark said to be added to palm wine (e) to incr. the intoxicating effect. Bark taken raw as a purgative. Sap applied to cure parasitic skin diseases (e). Resinous sap used by some Cameroons tribes to protect the powder in their priming pans. Twigs burn well, used as tapers. Wood yellowish, brownish center, hard, close-grained, takes a good polish, prob. durable. Used locally (Dalziel 1948:91) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia lancaeafolia


Garcinia lancaeafolia Roxb. CLUSIACEAE

Himalayas. Fruit eaten in India (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:286) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia lateriflora


Garcinia lateriflora Blume CLUSIACEAE

Philippines. Native in Luzon, not cult. Bontoc use wood to make tool handles, pestles, also for fuel (Bodner and Gereau 1988) Said to be poisonous (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1064) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia ledermanii


Garcinia ledermanii Laut. CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. In the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea, encouraged as a volunteer in the arboriculture zone. Fruit eaten raw. Also a live ladder (Lepofsky 1992) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia livingstonei


Garcinia livingstonei T.Anderson CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Imbe (Kennard) African Mangosteen (Sturtevant)

Trop. Africa. To 35 ft., somewhat columnar, young branches bearing whorls of short branches. Lvs. oblong to 5" long, rounded at apex, leathery. Fls. white or pale yellow, small, about 0.2" long. Fruit orange-yellow to reddish, globose, 1" diam., edible (Hortus Third 1976:494) Trop. S Africa. Fls. pale green, white or pale yellow, vanilla-scented (Griffiths 1994:492) Port. E Africa. Tree rarely to 20 ft., usually several trunks which arch away from the main axis and have a number of short thick side branches. Often used in landscapes because of their unusual form. Lvs. oblong, dark green with white veins, leathery, to 6" long, 2" wide. Clusters of greenish-yellow fls. along the branches at the start of the rainy season. Fruits dull to bright orange-colored, ripe in July, gone in 2 weeks. 2" long & diam., usually 1 seed, with a thin layer of acid-sweet watery pulp. Skin rather tender, can't be packed & shipped, but deserves more attention as a home fruit. Trees are not particular about soil, can tolerate 4-5 months of drought without irrigation. Can be a grafting stock for mangosteen (Kennard and Winters 1960) Edible, but not of the quality of mangosteen (Schery 1972:576) Fruits or seeds eaten by Swahili children looking after livestock or guarding fields (Weiss 1979:51) E Trop. Africa. Edible plum-like fruit. Formerly cult. in the Economic Garden, Singapore, but seldom fruited and grew to only 3 ft. tall in 40 years. Growth so slow it has no advantage as a graft for mangosteen in Singapore (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1069) Often suddenly sends up thousands of vertical shoots on its long horizontal branches (Menninger 1967) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia macrophylla


Garcinia macrophylla Miq. CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Garcinia griffithii T. Anders.

Sumatra. Formerly part of G. griffithii. Yellow-green fruits eaten. Resin is like gamboge, but irritant (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1067) Fruits the size of oranges. Lvs. v. large (Fairchild 1943) Valid species, GRIN has G. griffithii only as a separate species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia macrophylla


Garcinia macrophylla Mart. CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Rheedia macrophylla (Mart.) Planch. & Tr., Rheedia gardneriana Planch. & Tr.

Common names: Tauari vermelho (Kainer) Bacopari (von Reis)

Range not given. R. macrophylla: In Acre, Brazil, everyone uses it as food, a few also as a beverage. Common name is similar to that of Couratari macrosperma, Lecythidaceae (Kainer and Duryea 1992) R. gardneriana: In Brazil 1952, fruit yellow, edible (von Reis and Lipp 1982:188). Valid species & synonyms (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia madruno


Garcinia madruno (Kunth) Hammel CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Rheedia madruno Planch. & Triana

Common names: Madroño (Kennard)

Rheedia m.: N Venezuela, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama; in coastal ranges & the Andes to 1300 m. Tree to 20 m, dense pyramidal crown, abundant yellow latex. Lvs. deciduous, opp., petioles to 1.4 cm, oblong to 16 cm long, 5 cm wide, smooth, leathery. Fls. fragrant, white or pale yellow, 2 sepals, 4 petals to 7 mm long, male fls. with 25-30 stamens in 2 rows, borne in small axillary clusters. Fruits bright yellow, round or ellipsoid, 5 cm wide, thick v. rough rind exudes yellow latex. Pulp white, soft, subacid, adhering to 1-3 seeds, seeds 2 cm long. Cult. in Bolivia. Panama, believe that eating the fruits helps against jaundice, cholera. Also apply latex on ulcers (e), sores. Fruit marketed in large quantities in the Cauca Valley, Colombia (Morton 1981:Vol. 1 page 568) Rheedia m.: W Indies, trop. Am. Med. sized tree, frequent in wet forests of Panama, S Mexico [? prob. S Am.]. Small cream-colored fls. clustered at the nodes of the branchlets. Fruits with yellow, warty, somewhat brittle covering. Pulp scanty, snow-white, with a pleasant subacid somewhat aromatic flavor, 1-3 seeds. Eaten out of hand, made into jam. Unripe fruit is v. acid; if picked before maturity no further ripening occurs. Tree is handsome, has been recommended for planting along avenues (Kennard and Winters 1960) Rheedia m.: New Granada. Fruits are eaten (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:490) G. lateriflora: Listed under this name [but G. lateriflora is an Old World sp.] (NRCS database 2004) Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia maingayi


Garcinia maingayi Hook.f. CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Kandis gajah (Burkill)

Larut to Malacca. Mod. sized tree. Name means ‘elephant kandis’. Timber for ordinary work (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1069) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia malaccensis


Garcinia malaccensis Hook.f. CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Manggis hutan (Burkill)

Malacca only. Much like G. hombroniana. Name means ‘jungle mangosteen’; no info. on fruit. Timber reddish white with dark lines & blotches, fairly hard, splits in drying. Too rare to be useful (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1069) Ancestor of G. mangostana (Mabberley 1998:293) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia mangostana


Garcinia mangostana L. CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Mangosteen (Hortus) Manggis, Manggusta, Manggistan (Burkill) Men-gu (Sturtevant)

Malay region. Handsome evergreen tree to 30 ft. Lvs. thick, leathery, oblong to 10" long, many parallel lateral veins, dark green. Fls. sol., 2" across, rose-pink. Fruit 2-3" diam., rind smooth, thick, reddish-purple, enclosing 5-7 seeds, each in snow-white edible aril. Require moist lowland trop. climate, rich soil. Seeds have nucellar embryos, so plants come true from seed. Seeds v. short-lived after removal from the fruits; seedlings must be shaded until 2 ft. high. Difficult to transplant, hard to rear, slow-growing, seldom bear before 8 years. Not hardy, not productive outside the tropics. Cult. commonly as a door-yard tree in Indonesia, but rarely cult. elsewhere. One of the best trop. fruits (Hortus Third 1976:494) Malesia. Fls. rose-pink to yellow, sol. or paired. Fruit large, deep purple-black, 7.5 cm diam., aril white (Griffiths 1994:492) Allopolyploid female, 2n 88-90. Hybrid of G. hombroniana, 2n 48, x G. malaccensis, 2n ?42. One of the best trop. fruits, delicious endocarp, but fruits only productive in Malaysia (Mabberley 1998:293) Evergreen tree, to 18 m. Lvs. thick, leathery, oblong, to 25 cm long. Fls. mostly bisexual to 5 cm across, purple or yellow-red in few-fld. terminal bunches, sepals circular, petals broad-ovate, fleshy. Stamens many, filaments sometimes fused, ovary 5-8 celled, stigma thick, 5-8 lobes. Fruits globose to 6 cm across, dark purple with snow-white delicious pulp; rind thick full of yellow resinous juice, seeds 5-8, flat, large, embedded in the pulp. Origin unknown, prob. from Malaya, much cult. Hindi name mangustan, Burmese mangut. Flowers Nov.-Feb., fruits May-June. It is one of the most highly prized fruits of the tropics. The pulp melts in the mouth like ice cream, in flavor something between grape and peach. Seeds from ripe fruits must be sown within 5 days of collection (Sahni 1998:26) Manggis is a Malay term; names manggusta, manggistan still used in Sumatra, Bali & E of Bali; the Portuguese & Dutch adopted it. Cult. throughout W Malaysia, into Lower Burma, Lower Cochin China, and in the Philippines. Will not grow in the Spice Is., hard to grow in trop. Australia. Has been taken to the W Indies & elsewhere in the tropics. Not wild in Malaya, first trees in Penang Is. after its colonization, fruited ca. 1802. Tree takes 15 years to fruit. In Lower Cochin-China natives cut down the trees which do not fruit at the first flowering; this selects for good-producing hermaphrodite trees. Ridley said he never saw a male tree or a fertile stamen, though the seeds were almost always fertile. Only one race through Malaya. In the Sulu Is. a second one with thicker rind, more acid flesh, used for preserves. Little success in grafting on stocks of vigorous growth; most successful were G. xanthochymus, G. morella, G. livingstonei. Seeds soon lose their viability, v. hard to ship them any distance. Fruit can be transported fresh over a ten days' voyage, but not to more distant markets. Snow-white pulp on the seeds is delicious, many attempts to ship them. Flavor too delicate to preserve, sugar masks it completely. In Sulu Is. boil the pulp & seeds in brown sugar; Malays peel young fruits, boil with sugar or 'halwa manggis'. Malays won't eat ripe fruit with sugar; some unexplained result if sugar mixes with rind sap. The firm fruit-rind contains 7-13% tannin. Only worth using as a tan if abundant immediately about the tannery. The Chinese use it; Malay dyers use it in Pekan for dyeing black; used alone it dyes brown not black. Yellow coloring material in the rind, mangostin. Rind sliced, dried, used medicinally as an astringent. Exported from Singapore to China. Malays give a decoction for dysentery; found good by Eu. physicians in India. Used as a lotion in Dutch Indies. Leaf infusion with unripe bananas [Musa, Musaceae] & a little benzoin [Styrax, Styracaceae] applied to circumcision wounds. Root decoction for irrreg. menstruation. Ripe fruits said to purge. Fruit used in Johore to allay thirst for fever. Seeds have 3% oil. Timber dark brown, rather hard, heavy, fairly good. Cabinet work in Indochina. In Malaya for building, rice pounders, spear handles, etc. Rind of ripe fruits have drops of yellow resin; like gamboge but does not form an emulsion in water; also v. low yield (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1069) Tree is native in the Molucca Is., intro. elsewhere, though not without difficulty. Grows about 20 ft. tall, somewhat fir-like [Abies, Pinaceae] in general form, but the lvs. are large, oval, entire, coriaceous, glistening. The fruit is about the size & shape of an orange, partitioned in much the same way, but of a reddish-brown chestnut color. Thick rind yields a v. astringent juice, rich in tannin, and containing a gamboge-like resin. Pulp soft, juicy, snow-white or rose-colored, exceedingly delicious and subtle flavor & perfume. Being perfectly wholesome, it may be eaten freely, and administered in fevers. G. purpurea [name not confirmed] is male mangosteen, and Embryopsis glutinifera [now Diospyros, Ebenaceae] is wild mangosteen (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893:Mangosteen) No other trop. fruit has been so highly praised. Beautiful coloring, interesting shape, delicate enticing flavor rank it above all fruits of the Asiatic tropics. Not insipid like many trop. fruits. Thought to be native to the Malay Peninsula, to the Molucca & Sunda Is., cult. in humid tropics of Asia. Attractive columnar or pyramidal slow-growing evergreen to 40 ft. Strong central trunk with evenly spaced side branches, which become pendant at the tip when old. Lvs. opp., upper surface bright shining green, lower surface dull green. Fls. 2" diam., fleshy, terminally on the branchlets. Subglobose fruit to 3" diam., dark reddish-violet to purple, smooth or marked with brownish scars. Thick tough pericarp or rind exudes a bitter yellowish resin esp. when unripe. Calyx & stigmatic lobes persist till the fruit is ripe. Fruit is opened by an equatorial cut through the rind, exposes 5-8 translucent white segms. which are easily separated from the rind. The juicy pulp has a delicious sweet-tart flavor. Usually only 1-3 of the segms. contain seeds, 1" x 0.3". Plant seeds within days after removing from the fruit. Require shade for the first 4-5 years. Seedlings bear in 8 to 15 years, depending on location & care. Benefit by high humidity & rainfall, but will produce in areas with several months' dry season (Kennard and Winters 1960) Described by Martin 1604 and Orta 1563, but Linschoten 1595 dismissed the fruit as ‘of small account’ (Flaumenhaft and Flaumenhaft 1982:155) Capt. Cook found it in Batavia: about the size of a crab apple, deep wine-red, with 5-6 small triangles in a circle at the top and the remains of the fl. at the bottom. When skin is removed, 6-7 white kernels in a circle embedded in pulp which is no less wholesome than pleasant. Pulp in segms. like an orange, half-transparent creamy white. Cult. in S & E India, but not as perfect as in Malaysia. Morris 1880: cult. in Public Gardens in Jamaica. Name in Burma is men-gu (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:286) Fairchild tried repeatedly & unsuccessfully to intro. it in S FL, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Honduras, Panama. Finally Wilson Popenoe grew 500 young trees in the United Fruit Co. garden at Tela, Honduras. Also a small orchard in Summit, Panama, after many attempts. The queen of trop. fruit. No work has been done on breeding or sel. of this or any other in the genus. It is not grown anywhere in Java as an orchard crop; sometimes a few trees planted together in the kampongs or native villages. I could hear of no such thing as canned mangosteens, though Harry Boyle once sent me a case of canned mangosteens from the Philippines: delicious. No vars.; seedling trees everywhere bear curiously uniform fruits. No such thing as a grafted specimen anywhere, and why should there be if the fruit comes true to seed? (Fairchild 1943) Not common in Cent. Am., difficult to prop. However trees have fruited abundantly at some places along the Atlantic coast. One famous tree on Lake Izabal was leased for a time by the United Fruit Co., to obtain seeds for planting. Fruits small, depressed, dark purple, to 8 cm diam., contain several large seeds (Flora of Guatemala 1961:46) H.F.Winters in Puerto Rico: The seeds are parthenocarpic, that is, they are prod. without pollination of the flower. Genetically the seedlings are exactly like the parent. In fact, only one var. of mangosteen is known. Male fls. are present. Look alive men, you aren't necessary! (Menninger 1967) In the Near East & Malaya, most commercial fruit is from scattered dooryard trees. Under ideal conditions 2,000 fruits per tree per year. Extremely susceptible to cold; cannot be grown in the US (Schery 1972:576) 1699, Dampier, Voy.: Within this shell, the Fruit appears in 3 or 4 cloves, about the bigness of the top of a man's thumb. These will easily separate each from the other (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971:Clove) An extract of the tree bark has furnished a modern prep. called amibiasine, used as a remedy for amoebic dysentery, enteritis, etc. (Dalziel 1948:92) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia mannii


Garcinia mannii Oliv. CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Onié (Dalziel)

Fr. Guinea, S. Leone, Liberia, Iv. Coast, Gold Coast, S Nigeria. Sapwood yellowish-white, heart pinkish or deep yellow or olive-brown. Hard, fine-grained, takes a fine polish. Used in Nigeria for roads, bridges. Possibly a subst. for boxwood [Buxus, Buxaceae]. Sold under the Cameroons name Onié from the Fr. Colonies. Fruit somewhat resembles an orange, crowned with the stigma, matures only one seed. Acid pulp relished by the people. Tree sometimes classed or confused with Bitter Kola [G. kola], but not on account of the seed. Root chewed for its props., similar to those of the kola nut [Cola, Sterculiaceae]. Occasionally also the branches. Root soaked in palm wine or gin as an aphrodisiac. Root-bark dried, pulverized, mixed with spices or condiments for serious dysentery or diarrhea (Dalziel 1948:91) In Cameroun an anti-bacterial chewing stick (Mabberley 1998:293) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia merguensis


Garcinia merguensis Wight CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Lulai, Kandis burong (Burkill)

Cambodia, Tenasserim, S to Singapore. Tree, mod. tall. Malays make a v. pale varnish: notch the bark down to the wood in the evening. The next morning collect the sticky getah with the fingers, strain through a cloth. Mix with twice the volume of turpentine in an iron pot, bring to the boil 3 times. A pale brownish-yellow varnish for wooden scabbards & weapon handles. On wood it takes 3-5 days to dry. The little Melipone & Trigona bees are quick to collect the exuding getah for lining their nests. Not abundant enough for commerce. Contains a large proportion of free resin-acids and a small amt. of resin-esters. Can be classed as a dammar varnish. Fruit eaten in Cambodia; name means ‘bird's kandis’. Timber used a little. Lvs. with other substs. in a poultice to drive out evil spirits (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1072) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia microstigma


Garcinia microstigma Kurz CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. V. young lvs. eaten in the Andaman Is.; this & G. cowa are the only spp. with edible lvs. (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1064) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia morella


Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr. CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Gamboge (Burkill)

W coast of India. Seeds contain fat with half as much stearin as G. indica seeds and twice as much olein. Yields gamboge like G. hanburyi. At one time both were called C. morella. Apparently not in commerce until the Eu. met with it in the 16th cent. Even today scarcely exploited (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1063) Valid species (GRIN 2006) [formerly included G. hanburyi of SE Asia.]

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia myrtifolia


Garcinia myrtifolia A.C.Smith CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. A med. sized tree to 50 ft. Latex pale yellow. Lvs. to 4.5" long. A useful timber tree in Fiji (Parham 1972) Listed (NRCS database 2004) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

Garcinia nervosa Miq. CLUSIACEAE

Sumatra, S Malaya, Borneo. Tree of considerable size, yellow-blotched acid fruit. Pale brown wood is hard but satisfactory to work, durable if sheltered. Ridley calls it rather soft. Bark contain plenty of resin (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1072) Enormous lvs. (Fairchild 1943) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia nigrolineata


Garcinia nigrolineata Planch. CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Kandis gajah, Manggis hutan (Burkill)

Siam, Tenasserim, throughout Malaysia. Tree. Ridley 1909 says the fruit is 1" across, larger than that of G. globulosa which he regards as the true kandis. Acid rind, v. sweet pulp, but no information on how it compares with G. globulosa. Ridley: yellowish timber used in house building. Distinct irreg. rings & pores. Durable if not exposed, subject to insect attacks. Maingay 1890: pale dull red, fine grain, v. hard, splits on drying, used for house posts. Leaf juice with salt a lotion for running eyes (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1073) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia oblongifolia


Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. In China, fruit yellow, edible (von Reis and Lipp 1982:186). Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia ovalifolia


Garcinia ovalifolia Oliv. CLUSIACEAE

Fr. Guinea. Wood used to make canoes, or possibly confused with that of G. pynaertii De Wild. which is found farther S, or to Symphonia gabonensis [Clusiaceae] (Dalziel 1948:92) African tropics. Yields edible fruit (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:287) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia parvifolia


Garcinia parvifolia Miq. CLUSIACEAE

Singapore, Sumatra; woods. Small tree. Fruit elliptic, orange-yellow, cherry-sized, acid taste. In fruit most of the year. Used as a flavoring with rice, etc. Yellowish wood fairly hard, durable if sheltered from rain etc.; splits badly. Not available in large baulks. Attacked by white ants (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1073) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia pedunculata


Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham. CLUSIACEAE

Himalayan region. The fleshy part of the fruit which covers the seeds and their juicy aril has a firm texture and a sharp pleasant acid taste. Used by natives in curries and for acidulating water (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:287) In Burma fruits used to fix dyes; contain malic acid (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1063) In Bengal a large edible fruit (Mabberley 1998:293) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia picrorhiza


Garcinia picrorhiza Miq. CLUSIACEAE

Moluccas. Roots bitter, used medicinally (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1063) In Indonesia 1955, pulp of fruit sweet with bitter aftertaste. Bats (e) are fond of the fruit (von Reis and Lipp 1982:187). Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia pictorum


Garcinia pictorum . CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. In the E Indies the fruit ripens in Dec., eaten (von Reis and Lipp 1982:187). Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006) [possibly should be in G. xanthochymus like G. pictoria.]

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia planchoni


Garcinia planchoni Pierre CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. In Indochina fruits used as a subst. for tamarind [Tamarindus, Leguminosae] in curries (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1063) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia polyantha


Garcinia polyantha Oliv. CLUSIACEAE

S. Leone, Iv. Coast, Gold Coast, S Nigeria, Brit. Cameroons. Fruit edible. Seeds used like Bitter Kola [G. kola]. Yellow resinous sap applied as a dressing for wounds (Dalziel 1948:92) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia prainiana


Garcinia prainiana King CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Chepu (Burkill)

Malaya, S end of Main Range. Small tree, often planted in village orchards. Acid fruit eaten, 1.5" across. Names quite unlike those given to other Garcinias. Wood for house-building (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1073) Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia pseudoguttifera


Garcinia pseudoguttifera . CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Mbulu (von Reis)

Range not given. In New Hebrides1928, fruit is red, eaten by natives. In Fiji 1941, for body pain (e) squash leaf in water, strain & drink. Or for babies, squash leaf in coconut oil and rub body with oil. Fiji 1934, fruit used to scent coconut oil (von Reis and Lipp 1982:187). Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia rostrata


Garcinia rostrata Benth. & Hook.f. CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Lulai (Burkill)

Tenasserim, Malaya, Borneo, W Java. Tree of mod. size. Closely allied with G. merguensis. Apparently not tapped for resin (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1074) In Java 1964, fruit-wall eaten by animals (von Reis and Lipp 1982:187). Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia sessilis


Garcinia sessilis . CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. In Samoa 1921, fls. to scent coconut oil; bark in medicine (von Reis and Lipp 1982:187). Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia sopsopia


Garcinia sopsopia (Buch.-Ham.) Mabb. CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Garcinia paniculata Roxb.

E Himalayas. Fruit cherry-sized, tastes like mangosteen (Mabberley 1998:293) G. paniculata: Himalayan region. Edible fruit. Fruit raised in Calcutta the size of a cherry, that of native specimens from Silhet twice as large (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:287) Neither species nor synonym in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia sp.


Garcinia sp. . CLUSIACEAE

Common names: Bandoeng (Fairchild)

In Bali a handsome tree, rare. Dull orange fruits, egg-shaped, in showy masses among the glossy lvs. Not as good as mangosteens, but worth planting. Started in FL slat-houses (Fairchild 1943)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia tonkinensis


Garcinia tonkinensis . CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. Seed oil contains much resin, nearly 50% olein. Used for soap (Burkill 1966:1064) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia vidalii


Garcinia vidalii Merr. CLUSIACEAE

Range not given. In Philippines 1931, fruit is edible (von Reis and Lipp 1982:187). Valid species (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia xanthochymus


Garcinia xanthochymus Hook.f. ex T. Anderson CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Garcinia pictoria Roxb.

Common names: Gamboge (Griffiths)

W Himalayas, N India. To 40 ft. Lvs. oblong, acute, to 18" long, thick, leathery, many parallel lateral veins. Fls. white to 0.8" across. Fruit dark yellow, globose, to 3" diam. (Hortus Third 1976:494) India & through Burma into Siam. Cult. in Malaya for its pleasant acid fruits which may be eaten. In India for sherbets, medicine. From the immature fruit an inferior gamboge paint may be made. Bark dyes cotton black. Timber yellowish white, rather heavy, fairly hard (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 1074) N India. This & other spp. when tapped yield gamboge. Used in water colors & dyeing, e.g. for Buddhist priests’ robes (Mabberley 1998:293) S India, Malaya. Small to med. sized tree. Smooth yellow fruit the size of a small orange, pointed stigmatic end. Edible yellow pulp is juicy, has an acid flavor. Not a top quality fruit (Kennard and Winters 1960) E Indies, Malaya. Round smooth yellow fruit, taste little inferior to many of our apples. Firminger 1874 says it is intolerably acid, Unger 1859 that it tastes pleasant (Sturtevant 1972 [1919]:287) Not as good as the mangosteen (Schery 1972:576) G. pictoria: This & others have seeds that yield a fat (e) similar to that of G. indica (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893:Oil) G. pictoria: This & others in India yield gamboge like G. hanburyi (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893:Gamboge) Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia [balsamifera]


Garcinia [balsamifera] . CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Verticillaria balsamifera .

Common names: Aceyte de María, Balsamo de Maria (Ruiz)

Range not given. Lima, Peru, imports aceyte de María from Guayaquil, Ecuador (Ruiz 1998 (1777–1788):64). Other plants of medicinal value and balsams, gums, and resins of many kinds could be procured from Peruvian provinces along the Andes, including aceyte de María (Ruiz 1998 (1777–1788):152). Verticillaria b.: In the luxuriant fertile jungles of Pozuzo on the upper Amazon were many plants. One is Verticillaria balsamifera [now Garcinia sp.] which is a very attractive tree, with its leaves in whorls, and the leaves and branches a brilliant green. It exudes a greenish resin that the local Indians call balsamo or aceyte de María. They gather it in abundance during the rainy season, and keep it in pieces of bamboo stem for sale to travelling merchants (Ruiz 1998 (1777–1788):264). Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia [benthamiana]


Garcinia [benthamiana] . CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Rheedia benthamiana .

Common names: Cozoiba (von Reis)

Range not given. In Guayana 1965, fruit is reddish yellow, edible (von Reis and Lipp 1982:188). Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia [longifolia]


Garcinia [longifolia] . CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Rheedia longifolia .

Common names: Charichuelo (von Reis)

Range not given. In Peru 1935, fruit yellow, edible (von Reis and Lipp 1982:188). Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)

CLUSIACEAE Garcinia [spruceana]


Garcinia [spruceana] . CLUSIACEAE

Synonyms: Rheedia spruceana .

Common names: Chichiru (von Reis)

Range not given. In Bolivia 1902, fruit edible (von Reis and Lipp 1982:188). Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)


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