Home.   Search   Contact Us   Subject Tree   Help 

GERANIACEAE Pelargonium

Species listing:  
Pelargonium [genus]  
(6,408)

P. abrotanifolium  
(702)

P. acetosum  
(657)
Synonyms: Pelargonium acetosum
Soland.

P. alchemilloides  
(734)
Synonyms: Geranium alchemilloides
L.

P. anceps  
(233)

P. capitatum  
(1,477)

P. crispum  
(782)
Synonyms: Pelargonium crispum
(Berg.) L’Hérit.

P. cucullatum  
(787)
Synonyms: Pelargonium acerifolium
L’Hér.

P. cv.  
(1,968)
Synonyms: Pelargonium x limoneum
Sweet

P. denticulatum  
(703)

P. echinatum  
(627)

P. endlicherianum  
(182)

P. exstipulatum  
(274)

P. fragrans  
(1,075)
Synonyms: Pelargonium x fragrans
Willd., Pelargonium fragrans Willd.

P. fulgidum  
(661)

P. gibbosum  
(738)

P. glutinosum  
(623)

P. grandiflorum  
(213)

P. graveolens  
(2,232)

P. grossularioides  
(765)

P. hirtum  
(476)
Synonyms: Geranium hirtum Willd.

P. incrassatum  
(579)
Synonyms: Pelargonium roseum
(Andrews) DC

P. inquinans  
(868)

P. monoliforme  
(226)

P. odoratissimum  
(1,289)

P. peltatum  
(1,290)

P. pinnatum  
(208)

P. quercifolium  
(981)

P. radens  
(1,379)
Synonyms: Pelargonium radula
L’Hér.

P. scabrum  
(733)

P. tetragonum  
(715)

P. tomentosum  
(676)

P. triste  
(1,101)
Synonyms: Geranium triste L.

P. vitifolium  
(643)

P. x citrosum  
(426)
Synonyms: Pelargonium citriodorum
Schrank

P. x domesticum  
(769)

P. x glaucifolium  
(449)

P. x hortorum  
(2,435)

P. x jatrophifolum  
(397)

P. x mellissinum  
(468)

P. x nervosum  
(550)

P. x rutaceum  
(418)

P. zonale  
(562)


GERANIACEAE Pelargonium

 

Pelargonium [genus] L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Geranium, Storksbill (Hortus)

S Africa; 280 spp. Ann. or per. herbs or shrubs. Lvs. entire, lobed or dissected, stipules usually prominent. Infl. a 1- to many-fld. umbel, terminal, axillary or opp. the lvs. Fls. irreg., calyx with a spur united to the pedicel, sepals 5, petals 5, rarely 4 or 2, upper pair usually larger, stamens 10, 5-7 with fertile anthers, the rest only filaments. Fruit 5-valved, the valves coiling upward as they dehisce. Commonly grown as house and bedding plants. Many hybrids & cvs. (Hortus Third 1976: 832). Mostly S Africa, a few from trop. Africa, Australia, Middle East; 250 spp. Stem sometimes succulent or swollen. Lvs. alt., pinnate or palmate, simple or compound, sometimes aromatic. Fls. in a pseudo-umbel, petals usually clawed, two upper petals usually larger than lower 3 (Griffiths 1994: 851). S Africa, trop. Africa; 250 spp. Also 1 each Canaries, St. Helena, Tristan, E Medit., S Arabia, S India, Australia, New Zealand. Unlike Geranium & Erodium, this genus has the partial infl. in a dichasial umbel (Willis 1973: 864). Differs from Geranium in irreg. fls., and 5-7 of the anthers fertile, the rest just filaments. Sometimes with tuberous roots. Sometimes succulent, and such plants often have stipular spines, reduced lvs. Some spp. have scented lvs. due to essential oils, thought to deter animal-grazers (Mabberley 1998: 536) Has long been v. popular as a garden plant. The spp. in the orig. genus Geranium became widely known under that name, though now most of them have been removed to Pelargonium. From a popular point of view, the Pelargoniums of the botanist are better known as geraniums than are the geraniums themselves. One obvious diff. is that fls. of Pelargonium are irreg., the upper 2 petals being larger, smaller, or differently marked than the lower 3; occasionally the 3 lower petals are wanting. Breeding has given the fls. increased size, usually with enlargement of the lower 3 petals; sometimes v. nearly regular. Another well-marked diff. is that in Pelargonium, the back or dorsal sepal has a hollow spur which is adnate to the fl. stalk for its whole length. Cut through the fl.-stalk just behind the flower: in Pelargonium the hollow tube of the spur may be seen, in Geranium the stalk is a solid mass. Other chars. also: absence of the glandules, declension of the stamens. The ornamental ones are usually shrubby or sub-shrubby (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Geranium). Mr. Darwin has thrown considerable light on the question of how the glands of plants that are not adapted to capture insects can absorb their prods. as in Droseraceae. Two spp. of Saxifrage [Saxifragaceae], one of Primula [Primulaceae] and one of Pelargonium have glands that can absorb rapidly, and they also exhibit aggregation of protoplasm like Drosera. Those of Erica [Ericaceae], Mirabilis [Nyctaginaceae] and Nicotiana [Solanaceae] do not have these properties. Glandular hairs of at least some plants have been shown to absorb ammonia, both in sol’n and in vapor. These plants may be able to obtain animal matter from insects caught in their viscid secretions (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Insectivorous Plants). Under the popular name 'geranium', some of the spp. & their innumerable vars. & hybrids were intro. in Eu. gardens & houses, starting the end of the 17th cent. In US grow mostly descendants of P. inquinans & P. zonale, also in hanging boxes those from P. peltatum, and the ones with scented foliage, P. radens, P. graveolens, P. odoratissimum. ‘Pelargoniums’ are more popular in Eu., P. cucullatum and P. grandiflorum (Encyclopedia Americana. 1954: Pelargonium). Widely grown in homes & gardens. In CA may become bush-sized (World Book Encyclopedia. 1965: Geranium). Some are v. aromatic, esp. P. radens. Some of them have been grown expt. in Java & S India on dry hills in the tropics; most cannot live in Singapore (Burkill 1966: Vol. 2 page 1713). Lvs. of the scented spp. are put in pot-pourri. Also to flavor jellies, desserts. Some cooks put a leaf in the bottom of a cake pan. Some other scented pelargoniums are suggestive of pine, others of apricot or coconut. Easily grown from cuttings. In warm but not hot climates, do well outside year round if not subject to heavy rains. Allow to bloom early spring, then pinch back. Geranium oil is important in manuf. of perfume, distilled from a number of spp., some of which have unappealing odor or are scentless (Morton 1976: 26). Several spp. are cult. for perfume in N Africa & S Eu. Prop. by cuttings, plants live several years where there is no frost. Harvest by hand in Algeria or with mowing machines in France. Harvest in April-June and Oct.-Nov. After cutting the foliage is dried, then distilled. Yield 1 g oil per 1,000 g foliage. The principal constituent in geraniol. Much used as an extender or subst. for rose oil, other expensive essences. Also to perfume soaps, other prods (Schery 1972: 270). Used to prevent mosquitoes from biting, and thus to prevent disease. Also Betula [Betulaceae] oil, Pinus [Pinaceae] oil, Mentha [Labiatae] oil, Rosmarinus [Labiatae] extract & others (Tunón, Thorsell & Bohlin 1994: 111). In 1929 researchers reported that Japanese beetles that ate garden geraniums fell to the ground in a stupor that lasted up to 8 hours. Daniel A. Potter & David W Held are studying learning in beetles. Generally beetles with wide-ranging tastes are most likely to learn to avoid noxious foods. Although Japanese beetles eat nearly 300 US plant spp., they do not avoid geraniums. The fl. petals esp. of plants in full sunlight are the most narcotic; color seems unimportant. Water extract of lvs. also stunned the beetles. Beetle pairs offered a choice between geranium fls. and linden [Tilia, Tiliaceae] lvs., ate the geraniums so often that they laid only half as many eggs as pairs given only linden lvs. (Science News 1998: 366).




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium abrotanifolium

 

Pelargonium abrotanifolium (L.f.) Jacq. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Southernwood Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. Aromatic shrub. Lvs. clustered at tips of stems, velvety-canescent, fan-shaped in outline, 3-parted, lobes divided into linear teeth resembling those of Artemisia abrotanum [Compositae], stipules minute. Umbels axillary, 1-3-fld., fls. sessile, calyx spur 1-3 times as long as sepals, petals 0.4” long, white veined with red at base, or rose, the upper shorter & broader than the lower (Hortus Third 1976: 833). Bloom spring-summer (Griffiths 1994: 851). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium acetosum

 

Pelargonium acetosum (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Pelargonium acetosum Soland.

S Africa. Shrubby, stems & branches fleshy. Lvs. rounded, shallowly lobed, toothed at apex, cuneate at base, bluish green, glabrous, stipules 0.2” long. Umbels axillary, 2-6-fld., calyx spur more than twice as long as sepals, petals to 0.2" long, white or pale rose, narrow, long-clawed, nearly equal in length (Hortus Third 1976: 833). Buds & acid lvs. eaten in Cape of Good Hope (Sturtevant 1972: 412). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium alchemilloides

 

Pelargonium alchemilloides (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Geranium alchemilloides L.

S Africa. Stems to 1.5 ft., slender, erect or ascending. Lvs. pubescent, zoned with red, to 3” across, deeply 5-7-lobed, lobes sharply toothed. Umbels 3-6-fld., calyx spur twice as long as sepals, petals to 1” long, white veined with rose (Hortus Third 1976: 833). E & S Africa. Bloom spring-summer. Most plants grown as P. grandiflorum should be included here (Griffiths 1994: 851). Geranium a.: A native [?] medicinal plant in Mexico (Santamaría 1978: Tlatlancapacle). Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium anceps

 

Pelargonium anceps . GERANIACEAE

Range not given. In CA herbage smells of turpentine (von Reis and Lipp 1982:142). Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium capitatum

 

Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Rose-Scented Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. Stems to 1 ft., weak & trailing, woody at base. Lvs. to 2” across, cordate, 3-5-lobed above the middle, softly long-hairy, long-petioled. Umbels capitate, 9-20-fld., fls. sessile, calyx spur as long as sepals, petals rose, the upper veined with red-purple, to 0.8” long, the lower smaller, not veined (Hortus Third 1976: 833). Distilled for its oil, like P. radens. This is the only one that can survive in Singapore, needs care. Malay women sometimes hide the lvs. in their hair for the fragrance; call it jeremin from ‘geranium’ (Burkill 1966: Vol. 2 page 1713). Rose [Rosa, Rosaceae] scent. Distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume (Morton 1976: 27). Cult. for oil in N Africa, S Eu. (Schery 1972: 270). Widely cult. in cool regions as a garden ornamental & flavoring herb. Nat. in Bermuda, CA. Costa Rica, fresh or dried lvs. sold by herb vendors. Decoction as a bath to relieve skin troubles. Petals & lvs. dried, used to flavor herb ‘teas’. Geranium oil, distilled commercially from lvs. & stems, is used as a scent in perfume, soap (Morton 1981: Vol. 1 page 358). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium crispum

 

Pelargonium crispum (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Pelargonium crispum (Berg.) L’Hérit.

Common names: Lemon Geranium (Griffiths)

S Africa. Woody to 3 ft., lemon-scented. Lvs. many, small, 3-lobed, to 1” long, margin crisped. Umbel 1-3-fld., calyx spur to 0.4” long, as long as sepals, petals rose or rose-white, upper broader and deeply veined (Hortus Third 1976: 833). Lvs. to 1.5 cm, appearing 2-ranked, reniform, sometimes obscurely 3-lobed, rough, lemon-scented. Bloom spring-summer (Griffiths 1994: 852). Pleasingly fragrant. Distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume (Morton 1976: 27). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium cucullatum

 

Pelargonium cucullatum (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Pelargonium acerifolium L’Hér.

Common names: Maple-Leaved Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. Shrubby to 6 ft. Lvs. to 3” across, reniform, crenate, long-hairy, blades cupped. Umbels 5-10-fld., calyx spur to 0.5” long, slightly sorter than sepals, petals to 1” long, red with deep red veins (Hortus Third 1976: 833). P. acerifolium: Similar to P. angulosum, differing in lobes lobed to the middle, petals to 0.8” long (Hortus Third 1976: 833). SW S Africa. Bloom spring-summer (Griffiths 1994: 852). An ancestor of P. x domesticum (Mabberley 1998: 536) Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium cv.

 

Pelargonium cv. ‘Lady Mary’ GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Pelargonium x limoneum Sweet

Common names: English Finger-Bowl Geranium (Hortus) Lemon Geranium (Bailey)

P. x limoneum: A hybrid derived from P. crispum. Lvs. 3-5-lobed, more strongly toothed, less crisped, upper petals bright lilac tinged with purple, dark-veined and spotted with violet in the center, the lower pale lilac, unspotted. Lemon-scented (Hortus Third 1976: 934). P. limoneum: soft foliage has a lemon [Citrus, Rutaceae] or balsam odor. Prob. partly from the pink-fld., lemon-scented P. crispum (Morton 1976: 27). For insect bites and stings, I confess I'm much opposed to DEET. It dissolves my plastic glasses, and once on the skin, it quickly passes through the skin into the bloodstream, where I don't want synthetic chemicals with tongue -twister names. At the Amazonian Center for Environmental Education and Research camp on the Napo River of Peru where I conduct some of my workshops they prohibit any use of DEET. This has nothing to do with its effect on people. They've banned the chemical because it speeds the deterioration of the synthetic fibers that hold up the canopy walkway that meanders through the tree branches, sometimes 100 feet above the forest floor (Duke 1997:290) Something about plants with citrus-like aromatic qualities repels insects. The Citrosa geranium, for example, which has a strong citrus smell, has 30-40% of the repellent power of DEET; crushed lemon thyme [Thymus citriodora, Labiatae] also. You might be able to customize an insect repellent that will also serve as a scent that is pleasing to you. I mean this for men, too; many men's colognes feature citrus scents (Duke 1997:292) Neither taxon nor synonym in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium denticulatum

 

Pelargonium denticulatum Jacq. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Pine Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. To 3 ft. Lvs. glabrous & viscid above, pinnately lobed, lobes long, linear, deeply and sharply toothed. Umbels 1-3-fld., calyx spur to 0.3” long, as long as sepals, petals lilac or pink, the upper larger, notched, spotted and veined purple (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Valid species (GRIN 2006)

Pelargonium denticulatum cv. ‘Filicifolium’

Common names: Fern-Leaf Geranium (Hortus)

Lvs. finely divided, lacy (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Taxon not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium echinatum

 

Pelargonium echinatum Curtis GERANIACEAE

Common names: Cactus Geranium, Sweetheart Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. Stems short and fleshy, persistent spine-like stipules. Lvs. cordate-ovate to 3-7 shallow wavy-toothed lobes, white-tomentose beneath. Umbels 3-fld., calyx spur as long as sepals, petals white to red-purple, the upper deeply spotted (Hortus Third 1976: 834). W S Africa. Roots tuberous, stem succulent, branches covered with spiny stipules. Bloom spring (Griffiths 1994: 852). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium endlicherianum

 

Pelargonium endlicherianum Fenzl GERANIACEAE

Turkey. Hardy in Gt. Britain (Mabberley 1998: 536) Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium exstipulatum

 

Pelargonium exstipulatum (Cav.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Range not given. Pleasingly fragrant. Distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume (Morton 1976: 27). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium fragrans

 

Pelargonium Fragrans Group GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Pelargonium x fragrans Willd., Pelargonium fragrans Willd.

Common names: Nutmeg Geranium (Hortus)

P. x fragrans: Similar to P. odoratissimum, not easily distinguished, but branches generally more woody, lvs. 3-lobed above the middle. Fls. slightly larger, calyx spur twice as long as sepals, petals more prominently spotted and veined with red. Nutmeg [Myristica, Myristicaceae] scent (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Lvs. with spicy scent (Griffiths 1994: 852). Pleasingly fragrant; lvs. have scent of rose [Rosa, Rosaceae] & tansy [Tanacetum, Compositae]. Distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume. Some say it is a hybrid of P. odoratissimum x P. exstipulatum (Morton 1976: 27). P. fragrans: Cult. for oil in N Africa, S Eu. (Schery 1972: 270). P. fragrans is considered an uncertain group; in cult. considered a group or hybrid. Neither taxon nor P. x fragrans in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium fulgidum

 

Pelargonium fulgidum (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Range not given. Shrubby. Lvs. softly hairy, pinnately divided, to 3” long, lobes broad, again lobed; stipules 0.2” long, united to petiole half their length. Umbels axillary, 5-12-fld., peduncles long, villous. Fls. sessile, calyx spur to 1” long, sepals 0.2” long, petals scarlet, the upper larger, to 1” long, veined but not blotched with deep red (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Classed as scentless, but distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume (Morton 1976: 27). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium gibbosum

 

Pelargonium gibbosum (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Knotted Geranium, Knotted Storksbill (Hortus) Gouty Geranium (Griffiths)

S Africa. Shrubby, stems swollen at nodes. Lvs. pinnately divided to 3” long, glaucous, glabrous, stipules 0.2” long, free from petiole. Umbels 5-10-fld., axillary, peduncles to 4” long, fls. sessile, calyx spur to 1” long, sepals to 0.2” long, petals to 0.8” long, yellow-green, the upper 2 larger (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Scrambling, few-branched, stem succulent to woody, nodes swollen. Fls. scented at night (Griffiths 1994: 852). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium glutinosum

 

Pelargonium glutinosum (Jacq.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Pheasant’s Foot Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. Shrubby to 3 ft. Lvs. glabrous above, palmately 5-lobed nearly to the base, lobes broad, sharply toothed. Umbels 2-7-fld., fls. sessile, calyx spur to 0.4” long, as long as sepals, petals rose, the upper broader, red-spotted (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Unappealing labdanum [Cistus, Cistaceae] odor. Distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume (Morton 1976: 27). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium grandiflorum

 

Pelargonium grandiflorum (Andrews) Willd. GERANIACEAE

S Africa. Shrubs. An ancestor of P. x domesticum (Mabberley 1998: 536) Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium graveolens

 

Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Rose Geranium, Sweet-Scented Geranium (Hortus) Mawah Oil (Mabberley)

S Africa. Woody to 3 ft. Lvs. softly hairy, fragrant, deeply 5-7-lobed, the lobes again lobed and toothed. Umbels 5-10-fld., fls sessile, calyx spurt to 0.3” long, as long as sepals, petals rose, the upper larger, red-spotted and -veined. Material cult. as this sp. is prob. from hybrids with P. radens, including those cult. for commercial geranium oil (Hortus Third 1976: 834). S & NE S Africa. Lvs. rose-scented. Bloom spring-summer. This is the plant found wild in S Africa. Many cvs. assigned to this sp. may be derived from P. capitatum and P. radens (Griffiths 1994: 852). This & others collected comm. in France, Algeria & Réunion. Basis for scent, soaps (Mabberley 1998: 536) Also distilled for its oil, like P. radens (Burkill 1966: Vol. 2 page 1713). Pleasingly fragrant; lvs. have the aroma of rose & rue [Ruta, Rutaceae], or rose & balsam [Abies?, Pinaceae]. Distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume. One of the cvs. is called Camphor Rose, scent of camphor [Cinnamomum, Lauraceae] (Morton 1976: 27). One of the most common of the rose geraniums. Widely cult. as an ornamental & in herb gardens. Lvs. sold by herbalists in Caracas & Valencia, Venezuela; decoction valued for bathing the body. NM, lvs. mashed with vinegar & salt, bound on the forehead for headache. Also warmed lvs. stuffed in the ear for earache. All parts of the plant except the petals contain citronellol and geraniol. A fresh leaf often used domestically to flavor jelly. Commercially cult. in Eu., N & cent. Africa, India, El Salvador & elsewhere for distillation of geranium oil for food flavoring and as scent for perfume, soap, various toilet prods. (Morton 1981: Vol. 1 page 359). In Ecuador the aromatic lvs. are said to have medicinal props. (von Reis and Lipp 1982:142). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium grossularioides

 

Pelargonium grossularioides (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Gooseberry Geranium, Coconut Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. Stems herbaceous, slender, branched, spreading, nearly glabrous. Lvs. to 1.5” across, reniform-cordate, slightly lobed and crenate-dentate, turpentine-scented. Umbels 3-10-fld., often many on axillary branches, peduncles slender, to 4” long, sepals to 0.2” long, calyx spur as long as sepals, petals deep rose-purple, little longer than sepals. Nat. in CA (Hortus Third 1976: 834). S & SE Africa. Spreading to weakly erect, stem red, internodes long. Lvs. aromatic. Bloom spring-summer (Griffiths 1994: 852). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium hirtum

 

Pelargonium hirtum (Burm.f.) Jacq. GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Geranium hirtum Willd.

Common names: Aguijillas del cercas (Joyal)

Range not given. Geranium h.: In Ecuador the infusion is used for wind in the intestines, when one is filled with air. Name means ‘needles in the fence-rows’ (Joyal 1987: 172). Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium incrassatum

 

Pelargonium incrassatum (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Pelargonium roseum (Andrews) DC

S Africa. Tuberous herb. Lvs. basal, narrowly ovate, to 6 cm, deeply pinnatifid, silver-pilose to canescent. Pseudo-umbel 20-40-fld., stem to 30 cm, fls. bright magenta, 2 upper petals spatulate to 2 cm, 3 lower petals much smaller. Bloom spring (Griffiths 1994: 853). P. roseum: Cult. for oil in N Africa, S Eu. (Schery 1972: 270). Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium inquinans

 

Pelargonium inquinans (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Fish Geranium (Morton)

S Africa. Shrubby, stems fleshy. Lvs. cordate-orbicular, crenate, softly hairy. Umbels many-fld., calyx spur several times as long as sepals, densely glandular & long-hairy, petals 0.8” long, usually deep red or pale rose. One of the principal parents of P. x hortorum, the species itself prob. not cult. (Hortus Third 1976: 834). The red-fld. vars. most commonly grown [? P. x hortorum] are believed to be largely from this sp. Velvety foliage has a distinctly fishy odor (Morton 1976: 27). In S. Africa used as cold and headache cure by tribespeople (von Reis and Lipp 1982:142). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium monoliforme

 

Pelargonium monoliforme E. Meyer ex Harvey GERANIACEAE

S Africa. Succulent. Sprouted 7 months after being pressed (Mabberley 1998: 536) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium odoratissimum

 

Pelargonium odoratissimum (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Apple Geranium (Hortus) Nutmeg Geranium (Bailey) Mawah Oil (Mabberley)

S Africa. Plant sprawling, branches to 1.5 ft. long. Lvs. 1” across, cordate, crenate, fragrant. Umbels 5-10-fld., calyx spur to 0.3” long, little longer than sepals, petals to 0.4” long, white sometimes veined with red. Often confused with P. x fragrans, hybridizes with it. A source of geranium oil (Hortus Third 1976: 835). In Algeria, the oil distilled from this sp. is used as a subst. for otto of roses (Willis 1973: 864). This & others collected comm. in France, Algeria & Réunion. Basis for scent, soaps (Mabberley 1998: 536) Distilled for its oil, like P. radens (Burkill 1966: Vol. 2 page 1713). Pleasingly fragrant. Distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume (Morton 1976: 27). Cult. for oil in N Africa, S Eu. (Schery 1972: 270). Lvs. with apple [Malus, Rosaceae] scent, covered with a felt of grayish hairs (Morton 1976: 27). Intro. in Brazil, cult. on a modest scale. Its essential oil consists mainly of geraniol (Mors & Rizzini 1966). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium peltatum

 

Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Ivy Geranium, Hanging Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. Trailing or climbing branches to 3 ft. long. Lvs. to 3” across, peltate, broadly ovate, shallowly 5-angled or -lobed, sometimes zoned with red. Umbels axillary, 5-7-fld., fls. short-pedicelled, calyx spur more than twice as long as sepals, petals rose-carmine to white, the upper dark-veined, 0.8” long, longer than the lower. Thrive outdoors in CA (Hortus Third 1976: 835). Widely cult. in temp. & subtrop. regions of both hemispheres. V. popular in N S Am. Leafy stems sold by herb vendors in Venezuela, decoction used to bathe the skin. In S Africa, leaf juice used as an astringent & antiseptic, esp. to treat sore throat. Lvs. contain potassium oxalate & free oxalic acid (Morton 1981: Vol. 1 page 360). At the Cape of Good Hope the buds and acid lvs. are eaten (Sturtevant 1972: 412). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium pinnatum

 

Pelargonium pinnatum (L.) L’Hérit. GERANIACEAE

S Africa. Taproot-like tuber to 25 cm. Lvs. pinnate (Mabberley 1998: 536) Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium quercifolium

 

Pelargonium quercifolium (L.f.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Oak-Leaved Geranium, Almond Geranium, Village-Oak Geranium (Hortus) Mawah Oil (Mabberley)

S Africa. Shrubby to 4 ft. Lvs. deeply & sinuately pinnately lobed, often dark-marked in the center, lobes rounded, denticulate, 2-3 on each side. Umbels 3-7-fld., fls. sessile, calyx spur as long as sepals, petals rose, the upper larger, entire, with a large red spot and red veins (Hortus Third 1976: 835). S S Africa. Erect, viscid subshrub to 1.5 m, scented of balsam. Lvs. rough with long glandular hairs. Bloom spring-summer (Griffiths 1994: 853). This & others collected comm. in France, Algeria & Réunion. Basis for scent, soaps (Mabberley 1998: 536) Unappealing labdanum [Cistus, Cistaceae] odor. Distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume (Morton 1976: 27). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium radens

 

Pelargonium radens H.E. Moore GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Pelargonium radula L’Hér.

Common names: Crowfoot Geranium (Hortus) Mawah Oil (Mabberley)

S Africa. Shrubby to 3 ft. Lvs. rough-bristly-hairy, deeply lobed, lobes much divided into v. slender revolute divisions. Umbels 5-fld., fls. short-pedicelled, calyx spur not longer than sepals, petals rose, the upper larger, to 0.8” long, spotted with red. Confused with P. denticulatum (Hortus Third 1976: 835). Somewhat similar to P. graveolens. Lvs. rough, strong scent (Griffiths 1994: 853). P. radula: P. capitatum x P. radens, much grown in Reunion & elsewhere for the fragrant oil (Mabberley 1998: 536) P. radula: The chief sp. distilled for its oil. Distilled with water to yield a colorless or slightly greenish oil. Contains geraniol, citronellal, other fragrant cpds. (Burkill 1966: Vol. 2 page 1713). Pungent odor. Distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume (Morton 1976: 27). Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)

Pelargonium radens cv. ‘Dr. Livingston’

Tall, bushy. Lvs. deeply cut & lobed. Lemon fragrance (Griffiths 1994: 853). Taxon not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium scabrum

 

Pelargonium scabrum (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Apricot Geranium, Strawberry Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. Shrubby to 6 ft. Lvs. to 1” long, deeply 3-lobed, cuneate at base, glabrous above, scabrous beneath. Umbels 2-6-fld., calyx spur not longer than sepals, petals to 0.8” long, rose to white, the upper larger, spotted and veined with red (Hortus Third 1976: 835). W & SW S Africa (Griffiths 1994: 853). Valid species (GRIN 2006)

Pelargonium scabrum cv. ‘M. Ninon’

Lvs. dark, glossy. Fls. deep rose-pink. Apricot scent (Griffiths 1994: 853). Taxon not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium tetragonum

 

Pelargonium tetragonum (L.f.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Square-Stalk Cranesbill (Hortus) Square-Stack Cranesbill (Griffiths)

S Africa. Stems fleshy, obtusely 3-4-angled. Lvs. few to 1.5” wide, cordate, deeply 5-lobed, bluish green. Umbels axillary, 1-3-fld., peduncles short, fls. sessile, calyx spur to 1”, several times as long as sepals, petals 4, the upper two 1” or more long, obovate on a long claw, rose with purple lines at base, the 2 lower half as long, spatulate, white (Hortus Third 1976: 835). S S Africa. Erect to sprawling. Bloom spring (Griffiths 1994: 854). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium tomentosum

 

Pelargonium tomentosum Jacq. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Herb-Scented Geranium, Peppermint Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. Shrubby to 3 ft. Lvs. cordate-ovate, angled, 3-lobed, softly hairy above, densely white-tomentose beneath. Umbels 4-20-fld., calyx spur shorter than sepals, petals to 0.3” long, white, the upper splotched with red. Peppermint [Mentha, Labiatae] scent (Hortus Third 1976: 835). Low-growing to 50 cm, wide-spreading (Griffiths 1994: 854). Lvs. downy, grayish, to 4” wide, pronounced peppermint odor (Morton 1976: 27). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium triste

 

Pelargonium triste (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Geranium triste L.

Common names: Sweet Cranesbill (Gordon)

S Africa. To 2 ft., stem short, thick. Lvs. 3-pinnately divided into oblong or lanceolate acute teeth, to 10” long, densely hirsute. Peduncles to 20”, fls. sessile, calyx spur to 1.6” long, petals dark purple (Hortus Third 1976: 835). Tuberous herb, stem v. short. Lvs. basal, long-stalked, to 45 cm. Infl. 5-20-fld., fls. to 1.5 cm diam., scented, petals brown-purple with a dull yellow margin. Bloom spring-early summer (Griffiths 1994: 854). Geranium t.: Thomas Hanmer, Garden Book: Sweet Cranesbill has an excellent sweet smell in the night only, called Geranium Triste because it rejoyceth not in the day. A pott of it in flower will perfume a room sufficiently in the night time (Gordon 1977: 117). Tubers are eaten at Cape of Good Hope (Sturtevant 1972: 412). Valid species & synonym (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium vitifolium

 

Pelargonium vitifolium (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

Common names: Grape-Leaved Geranium (Hortus)

S Africa. Similar to P. capitatum and perhaps not distinct. Differs in its more erect habit, and in having lvs. less deeply lobed, more harshly pubescent (Hortus Third 1976: 836). Strongly aromatic, more erect than P. capitatum. Bloom spring-summer (Griffiths 1994: 854). Smells like citronella [Cymbopogon, Gramineae]. Distilled for the oil, used in manuf. of perfume (Morton 1976: 27). Valid species (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium x citrosum

 

Pelargonium x citrosum Voigt ex T. Sprague GERANIACEAE

Synonyms: Pelargonium citriodorum Schrank

Common names: Orange Geranium (Hortus)

A hybrid rel. to P. crispum and P. x limoneum, with the fl. color of the latter and the narrow lower petals of the former (Hortus Third 1976: 833). Neither taxon nor synonym in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium x domesticum

 

Pelargonium x domesticum L.H. Bailey GERANIACEAE

Common names: Show Geranium, Fancy Geranium, Lady Washington Geranium, Martha Washington Geranium, Pansy Flowered Geranium, Summer Azalea, Regal Geranium (Hortus) Regal Pelargonium (Mabberley)

A cultigen of complex hybrid origin, largely from P. cucullatum and P. grandiflorum, with many fancy-named cvs. used primarily by florists. Stems long to 1.5 ft., soft-hairy throughout. Lvs. to 4” across, obscurely lobed & toothed. Fls. few to many, large, petals white, pink, red or purple, the 2 upper with dark blotches and veins (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Listed (NRCS database 2004) Taxon not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium x glaucifolium

 

Pelargonium x glaucifolium Sweet GERANIACEAE

Common names: Black-Flowered Geranium, Little-Leaf Rose Geranium (Hortus)

P. gibbosum x P. lobatum. Similar to P. gibbosum. Lvs. large, ternately to pinnately lobed, glaucous. Umbels long-pedunculate, petals nearly equal, purplish-black margined with pale yellow-green (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Taxon not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium x hortorum

 

Pelargonium x hortorum L. H. Bailey GERANIACEAE

Common names: Fish Geranium, Zonal Geranium, House Geranium, Horseshoe Geranium, Bedding Geranium (Hortus) Geranium (Griffiths) Zonal Pelargonium (Mabberley) Stinking Cranesbill (Gordon)

A cultigen of complex hybrid origin, largely from P. inquinans and P. zonale, familiar in hort. as a garden culture group. Used as pot plants and for bedding. Stems to 2 ft., succulent. Lvs. rounded to reniform, to 5” across, cordate, scalloped and crenate-toothed, often zoned or variegated. Umbels densely many-fld., calyx spur elongate, petals nearly equal, red, pink, salmon or white, usually uniform in color (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Complex of hybrids from P. inquinans x P. zonale (Griffiths 1994: 853). Lvs. with fishy odor (Bailey & Bailey 1941: 544). Many cvs. including even a haploid, ‘Kleine Liebling’, with n 9, roots diploid (Mabberley 1998: 536) We keep Stinking Cranesbill [may be this sp.] firmly outside the garden gate (Gordon 1977: 119). P. zonale: Dried lvs. sold by herb vendors in Cuba, steeped to make a tea, regarded as a tonic [prob. should be here] (Morton 1976: 27). P. zonale: Lvs. & stalks are eaten in Yemen (Sturtevant 1972: 412). Almost universally grown as an ornamental, indoors & out. Many named cvs. Nat. in Costa Rica, Guatemala. In Guatemala, fresh lvs. boiled with cinnamon [Cinnamomum, Lauraceae], decoction taken to stop hemorrhages (Morton 1981: Vol. 1 page 359). Grown in almost every Guatemalan garden, in pots, or more often in open ground, where the plants may reach 2 m or more and become decidedly woody. Nat. in hedges, etc., thrive with little or no attention. Some years ago, the Jefe Político of San Marcos planted thousands along the Carretera Internacional. The plants did not thrive, though many still remain; however in neighboring door-yards thousands of plants receive little attention and make a better show. In Guatemala, geranium lvs. are applied as poultices to sores & ulcers, said to heal them quickly (Flora of Guatemala 1946: 373). Listed (NRCS database 2004) Taxon not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium x jatrophifolum

 

Pelargonium x jatrophifolum DC GERANIACEAE

Common names: Pheasant’s Foot Geranium (Hortus)

Range not given. Similar to P. denticulatum but lobes of lvs. broader, more sinuate, upper petals not notched. Known today as P. cv. ‘Pheasant’s Foot’ (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Taxon not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium x mellissinum

 

Pelargonium x mellissinum Sweet GERANIACEAE

P. crispum x P. graveolens. Similar to P. crispum, but lvs. larger, more deeply divided, scarcely crisped. Umbels few-fld., fls. pedicelled, upper petals white with strong red flush and nearly black spotting, much broader than the narrow white lower petals. Lvs. scented like Melissa officinalis [Lamiaceae] (Hortus Third 1976: 834). Taxon not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium x nervosum

 

Pelargonium x nervosum Sweet GERANIACEAE

Common names: Lime Geranium (Hortus)

A hybrid of undetermined parentage. Softly hairy, stems shrubby, branching. Lvs. reniform to ovate 1” long, deeply & sharply toothed, not lobed, densely hairy, lime-scented. Umbels few-fld., calyx spur as long as sepals, petals rose-purple, upper broader, more deeply colored than the lower, veined and splotched with dark crimson (Hortus Third 1976: 835). Taxon not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium x rutaceum

 

Pelargonium x rutaceum Sweet GERANIACEAE

P. gibbosum x P. multiradiatum. Similar to P. gibbosum. Lvs. much-divided like those of rue [Ruta, Rutaceae]. Umbels many-fld., petals chocolate, margined pale yellow, the upper yellow-spotted at the base, with the scent of rue [Ruta, Rutaceae] in the evening (Hortus Third 1976: 835). Taxon not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)




GERANIACEAE Pelargonium zonale

 

Pelargonium zonale (L.) L’Hér. ex Ait. GERANIACEAE

S Africa. Shrubby, stems fleshy. Lvs. reniform-orbicular, crenate, often zoned. Umbels many-fld., calyx spur 1” long, several times as long as sepals, petals to 0.8” long, narrow, uniformly pale pink or shades of red. One of the principal parents of P. x hortorum; unmodified material of this sp. prob. not cult. (Hortus Third 1976: 836). Erect or scrambling, to 1 m. Bloom spring-autumn (Griffiths 1994: 854). Valid species (GRIN 2006)



Bibliography:

Bailey, L. and E. Z. Bailey. 1941. Hortus Second. Macmillan, New York NY.

Burkill, I. 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula., 2nd ed. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-Operatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Duke, J. A. 1997. The Green Pharmacy: New Discoveries in Herbal Remedies for Common Diseases and Conditions from the World’s Foremost Authority on Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus PA.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1893, 9th ed., with New American Supplement. The Warner Company, New York NY.

Encyclopedia Americana. 1954. Americana Corp., New York NY.

Flora of Guatemala (Standley, Paul C.; Steyermark, Julian A.). 1949. Part 6: Hippocastanaceae. Chicago Natural History Museum, Chicago IL.

Gordon, L. 1977. Green Magic: Flowers, Plants and Herbs in Lore and Legend. Viking Press, New York NY.

Griffiths, M. 1994. Index of Garden Plants. Royal Horticultural Society, London U.K.

GRIN. 2006. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, Germplasm Resources Information Network. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/paper.pl (11 December 2006).

Hortus Third. 1976. Hortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York NY.

Joyal, E. 1987. Ethnobotanical Field Notes from Ecuador: Camp, Prieto, Jorgensen, and Giler. Economic Botany 41(2):163-189.

Mabberley, D. 1997. The Plant-Book., 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Gt. Britain.

Mors, W. B. and C. T. Rizzini. 1966. Useful Plants of Brazil. Holden-Day, San Francisco CA.

Morton, J. F. 1976. Herbs and Spices. Western Publishing Co., Racine WI.

Morton, J. F. 1981. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America, Bahamas to Yucatan. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield IL.

NRCS database. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5, http://plants.usda.gov. USDA, Baton Rouge LA.

Santamaría, F. J. 1978. Diccionario de Mejicanismos, 3d ed. Editorial Porrua, S.A., Mejico, D.F., Mexico.

Schery, R. W. 1972. Plants for Man., 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, Engelwood Cliffs NJ.

Science News. 1998. 154:366.

Sturtevant, E. L. 1972 [1919]. Sturtevant’s Edible Plants of the World. Dover, New York NY.

Tunón, H., W. Thorsell, and L. Bohlin. 1994. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2):111-120.

von Reis, S. and F. J. Lipp, Jr. 1982. New Plant Sources for Drugs and Foods from the New York Botanical Garden Herbarium. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.

Willis, J. 1973. A Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns., 8th ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

World Book Encyclopedia. 1965. Field Enterprises Educational Corp., Chicago IL.